Jonathan Kosol's interest in teaching profession and activism was called after three Mississippi civilian civilians killed in June 1964 while working on a four-year college in Boston, Massachusetts. His experience as a teacher in Boston's monolingual schools, he conceals insights into the perspective of children of minorities, who urged him to deal with the prevalence and inequalities of public schools that have continued to plague the nation to this day.
Definition of School
According to him, he visited about 60 schools in 30 provinces in 11 different states. Most of his visits were in the South Bronx in New York, Los Angeles – California, Chicago, Detroit – Michigan, Ohio, Seattle – Washington, Boston – Massachusetts and Milwaukee. In the schools he visited, he watched as the situation grew worse for children in the city over 15 years after the federal courts dismantled the Brown V Summit. Ministry of Education. He points out that the number of white school students in public schools in the city has steadily declined with the change pattern of white middle-class companies from urban to suburban communities from the 1960s (white flights). He talks about the sarcasm of schoolchildren associated with the leaders of the merger, which schools carry their names, like the Thurgood Marshal elementary school in Seattle Washington, with 95% minorities. According to him, the overwhelming majority of students in urban public schools in the United States are students of color. In Detroit, for example, 95% of students in public schools are either black or Spanish. In Chicago, the figure is 87%, Washington is 94%, and New York is 75%. He pointed out cynicism in "a small school initiative" such as the Seattle Center School, which was seen as a "draw" at the school level that "attracted 83% white and 6% black enrollment when it opened in 2001, in a city where white is only 40% of upper secondary schools in higher education ". (p. 277). By comparing the school at the African / American Academy in the second half of the city where 93% of black students are and white is 3% of the enrollment, the University Center and its curriculum offers many opportunities for students. "The Cultural Center, known as the Seattle Center, offers a glorious academic program to prepare for its graduation for a university, but it also provides numerous opportunities for students to participate in science, theater, music, ballet, and other cultural activities. ", (p.278), but such opportunities are lacking in the African-American Academy. "The school in a sense is a local version of Liberia's own … The African American Academy uses a very direct teaching method that somehow resembles the approach used in success for all" (p. 279). He argues that after decades of ongoing struggle against school teacher and civilian activation, social and economic policies have continued to support the growing incidence of school segregation.
Kozol provides a lack of basic resources and amenities in urban public schools – toilets, clean classrooms, hallways; appropriate laboratory products, updated books in good condition, and classrooms and materials. According to him, this lack of resources for some teachers lacks between $ 500- $ 1,000 of their own money each year of study to purchase supplies and stuff in the case of the Winton Place Elementary School in Ohio. He argues that overcrowding students in the classroom. For example, in Chicago it is not uncommon to see classrooms with up to 54 students, as most teachers are incompetent.
Kozol also points out that there is a shortage of preschool teachers for a large number of students, because the liaison programs that had been supported by them were denied them. It also shows discrepancies for money spent on the student and its impact on state testing. For New York states, average student spending in the city is $ 8,000, while the suburbs are $ 18,000. Also in New York are inequalities in spending in 2002 and 2003: NYC $ 11,627, Nassau County $ 22,311, Great Neck $ 19,705. The openness of teachers in poor and wealthy districts follows the same pattern. While the average salary of teachers in poor communities is $ 43.00, teachers' salaries in suburbs such as Rye, Manhurst and New York's Scarsdale range from $ 74.00 to $ 81,000. Even the issue of fundraising is part of a mismatch among poor and rich communities. Rich neighborhood schools could raise up to $ 200,000, but schools in poor regions could only raise $ 4,000.
Policy Adaptation Schedule
Kozol asks the debate behind the script that has been adapted to the minority school system. "Actual Writing", "Active Listening", "Registration Framework", "Account Message", "Invalid", etc., according to the teacher's booklet, are intended to accompany the manuscript file to formally and structurally build the learning environment that arouses both students and teachers. The maximum level and higher expectations with little support have included the moral and ethical values used to be an integral part of the curriculum. "used by most schools has become a part of everyday rituals and practices that are often used to promote students ethically. Students from schools who are in progress are encouraged to remind sentences like" I'm smart "," I'm confident " Raising Himself He Has Designed to Identify Causes of Success in Little Students, Using the "Strict Skinnerian Controls" to Control and Teach Classroom Students, and Whom It Is Pushing Some "Value Added" to Undervalued Children (p. 285)
In the context of the above, the business-related viewpoints of "work-related themes" created in these schools, "market factors", "signing a contract", "taking ownership of learning", "pencil manager" "," Director of Education "," Building Managers, "" Leaders, "etc. This type of corporate outlook describes students as" assets "," # 39; maker units, & # 39; or & # 39; team player & # 39; according to Kozol. The knowledge and skills acquired by students are considered "products" and "products" that are consumed in the "teaching market". Kozol argues that education should not at all be equivalent to the production line of the factory and recommends that "teachers and principals should not allow the beautiful profession they have chosen to redefine from those who know much less than their children's hearts." (p. 299)
The issue of teaching for testing has divided into core teaching for learning in public schools. According to Kozol, "Some schools start a standard preschool exam. Courses that are not part of high-level exams are often no longer taught or are completely removed from their school program, such as arts and music, Naptime and / or recesses have been reduced. or take out completely to allow more time to create a standardized test Even teacher meetings are focused on reviewing effective methods to prepare students for quarterly food tests or reviewing the condition and standard standards Teachers are encouraged to attend workshops and conferences the tests to gain more knowledge of how they integrate their theories into the standard test standards
In the offer of all learning outcomes submitted to students, they are also traced and labeled, the children from level 1 (lowest) to 5 grade (highest) put them in categories considered for further guidance should be n much appreciated for their logo, it is used as a description of their academic achievement. "She has gone down to level two," "She is a level one." The issue of theoretical measurements and markings in these schools creates a major barrier to equality and democracy in a learning environment. According to Kozol, teaching is taught as "ownership", not something you participate in. Students are encouraged to choose the "career path" of the innovation year to set their course. Nonetheless, there is little incentive for the career level of university studies. For example, in the case of Mireya, who sits on Fremont High in Los Angeles, but she is seeking university education, she is rather involved in volunteering – stitching and hairdressing. She says Kozol "I hope something else." "Why is it that students who do not need what we need get so much more? And we who need it get so much more?" She asked.
Taking into account all of these structured teaching methods that are put at the civic school by the administrative office, both teachers and students show a changing behavior to achieve organizational goals. Teachers who tend to rise to these provisions face discipline and may lose their jobs. Students who do not follow the rules and follow the proposed pattern face the risk of not being tested. Overall, the classroom lacks creativity and ingenuity. Kozol points out that taking the school back on track would rather be a reflection but a miracle. He argues that despairing schools cannot be turned around with the advent of charismatic, harsh chief authors. "There are hundreds of principals in our urban schools who are genuine heroes … but there is a difference between acknowledging the achievements of school principals and the marketing of individuals as saviors through persistent unequal systems".
Ray of Hope
After asking and criticizing the redevelopment of urban public schools in America, Kozol pointed to several schools, teachers, principals, managers, and human rights organizations he had met in the program, hoping for the possibility of school adaptation. According to him, "virtually all the real human factors of the teacher's motivation have been locked out by misunderstandings in the market so much of education policy today. But when we go to school where these ideological marketing have been massive, then we have mentioned adequately actions and loyalty that are very different from those that govern this urban debate. "(p. 297) …" These are the schools I call "the treasures." "They always remind us of potential." (p. 300).
He acknowledges definitions made at most school levels since after three years of visits. PS 65 introduced a new curriculum that addresses the needs of children. The arrests and manuscripts in the lessons have been taken out and the actual children's writings appear on the walls. He also recalls the efforts of some school districts in Milwaukee and Louisville where school administrators have contributed to desegregation across regional lines.
Kozol sees all the hopes of teachers and managers such as Louis Bedrock (whom he serves this book for), Miss Rosa, PS 30's favorite director, Fern Cruz, PS 65's new CEO, and others for their dedication and perseverance in fighting for the right. a minority education course. He also acknowledges the contribution of black activists such as Lewis MPs, who has published public and written books exposing persistent triumph in America.
In his epilogue, he wrote "A distinct education in America is unacceptable". "Integration is still the goal that is worth fighting for" (p. 316).
Shame of the Nation: Analysis
I find this book very public, fascinating, intuitive and at the same time unilateral and considered but in summary it is very informative. This book is an opportunity for a good national research, which not only puts energy into its work but also has passion in the affairs of his work – the students. The analysis's rights to this book relate to imbalances that are important in the American community. Race, category, culture, gender, and economic status that has formed the metric of individuals & # 39; Worth in the US community has become the foundation of the policy makers in shaping policies. Policies such as education, housing, income and property taxes, transportation, etc. Have been so carefully crafted to include and exclude some members of the community. These rules, of course, toward the dominant group, which are the white and disfavor target groups that are mostly black and Hispanic.
It is important to understand the game in strategy. Take, for example, the funding of urban schools in the community from property taxes from the community, first of all, the nature of the characteristics of such a community, each of them, the form and value of the community. If the majority of these assets are owned by individuals and are of good shape and value, they are expected to receive good tax for the community. On the other hand, when the government owned such assets, little in real estate tax can be realized in such a community, and it then affects the source of the school. This is the game of politics in maintaining inequality as we have seen in this book.
Who would expect the government that tends to speak for equal education has a hand in making it unequal? That the commandments "No child behind" and "equal opportunity for all" are just absurdity? Who would imagine that some teachers and educators might be so robust that they ask their ingenuity and facial creativity for treatment, except for a public book like this? In addition, how can anyone understand the damage that has been done to these administrative inconsistencies over the years?
There is insight into the social, economic and cultural power of society in this book. Enlightened, educated, good-quality, and better-educated parents say more about their children's education than with little or no education. They embarrass good schools for their children, organize themselves as a parent's school, and intervene in issues that are not favorable to their children, for example, they collect money to hire more teachers and advocate for a smaller number of children in the class. They come up with a single voice to exclude others from being able to take part in their children's schools and sometimes taking their children out of school who receive more minority enrollment as appropriate. They are less dependent and demanding for school governance and government than parents with fewer capitals. The minority parents, who have fewer capitals, complain and mostly for the school administration and government to make the necessary changes to their children's schools. The system fosters family status offspring.
In this atmospheric atmosphere, while the dominant group works to maintain its position and purposefully subduing a poor group, its position desires, the children suffer in the struggle. The wider gap is created between the rich and the poor. While children of the dominant group are perceived as being successful, they are less educated and # 39; but poor children who see it all. They face less likelihood of integrating and facing the reality of multinational societies and are therefore more likely to face the mouth in the future. However, poor poor children become poorer and more cynical when capital levels arise. As for the little Bronx boy who wrote Kozol, "You have everything and we don't have everything," and California college students, who told their classmates: "You're ghetto, so you sew." Inconsistencies in their educational experience are causing countless questions Their head, which only governments can understand when their parents may be guilty and because of not having anywhere, students are innocent. Kozol's investigation begins to predict the current pace of education policy in America, imbalances persist, integration must be minimized and desegregation will not only be a nightmare in schools, but would be nipped in the breast of the future if they are not addressed now, he says: "This nation needs to be a family and a family descends for their dinner on the table, and we all understand everything at that table. "
By interpreting class ska work Kozo we will analyze the blatant, ugly ástríðuóhyggju in public city schools in which plague America today, I need to point out the one-sided opinion and views on the matter. In such a situation no one can be all right and the other is all wrong, there must be a balance from "little to right and little left". Throughout the book, Kozol discusses organizational changes in educational inequalities that look to the school and government as a factor that has argued the problem, little speculation if any, a cultural approach to discussion with parents and student contributions. Although there were a number of reasons for all white public schools, there was little emphasis on their communication, although it can be argued that they have all the necessary services available to them in comparison to small-scale schools.
I call this one-sided and considered in the sense that the subject matter of the issue, which is the poor minorities and their children, is not addressed as a possible issue of the problem and as such potential participants in the solution. If in the capitalist society like America, where opportunity is abolished, the "main part" of the minority continues to complain about the multiplication of resources, the problem is somewhere permanently set, the problem could be in security factors in dependence The word is valid, and for many parents many are dependent on the system and cannot go on their way to independence and gain independence in their children. so who does the extra money for the children?
The children, as well as the lack of models from their parents, do not consider it necessary to work and win inevitably, embracing violence, and continuing to fingers pointing to their parents instead of eight assume that education is not uneasy Access only ð High position in the community I believe that emphasis is placed on reforming the minority's children in exploring study programs, regardless of the limitations they face, helping to get them back on track. On the other hand, if they should be happy, respectful, reduce violence and love themselves, it would attract more sympathy to them from any administration and they could be in their own schools without whites and feel good just the same. Understandably, the construction method often creates a culture that is volatile based on economic resources that provide independence and autonomy.