I am always interested in content collection. Like a child, my mother would refer to me as "smart" but I noticed that all parents refer to their children as smart. Over time, I would discover that all children are not smart, as all children are not cute. If so, we all have beautiful, dressed people – we do not.
Some of us are smart; but not as smart as we think, and others are better than they seem, which makes me wonder how do we define smartly? What makes one person better than others? When do streetmaps make more than a "library"? Can you be clever and stupid? Is there any more direct effect on genetics or human environment?
Then there are issues of education, intelligence and wisdom.
What does it mean to be a professional? What is the difference between being highly educated and highly intelligent? Are you very educated automatically make you very intelligent? Can you be very intelligent without being educated? Do IQs really do something? What makes you wise? Why is wisdom usually associated with old age?
My desire to seek answers to these questions inspired many hours of intense research, including reading 6 books, hundreds of research papers and countless hours on the Internet; compared to the lifecycle of research and research as pioneers in the field of information gathering and education such as Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn and Diane F. Halpern, which are cited in this article.
My goal was simple: Amass, innovate and present data on what it means to be smart, educated and intelligent so that it is understood and used by someone for the benefit.
With this in mind, there was no better (or more appropriate) place to begin than at the beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.
It is an indication that consuming high levels of iron in iron both before and during pregnancy is important to build a stroke. Scientists have found a strong relationship between low iron levels during pregnancy and reduced IQ. Foods rich in iron include lime beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafood, nuts, dried fruit, oatmeal and fortified grain.
Lower extremity children (in the uterus) lowered each test and had significantly lower language skills, motor skills and flexibility than children with higher iron levels at birth. Basically, proper birth problems are critical in the development of intellectual skills.
Essence of Talent
Intellectual Abilities are the fundamental spiritual abilities we use to think, learn and learn. They include a variety of psychological methods used to analyze sounds and images, restore information from memory, make organizations between different information, and maintain the strengths of certain tasks. They can be defined and measured. Cognitive fitness and efficiency comes directly with students & # 39; ease of learning.
DRINKING, obsessive and transverse effects
Drinking during pregnancy is not easy. Indeed, it's just stupid.
Study on Alcohol Disorder: Clinical and Experimental Analysis has concluded that even mild to moderate drinking – especially during the second trimester of pregnancy – is associated with lower blood cells in offspring at the age of 10 years. This finding was especially pronounced among African America rather than white-breed offspring.
"IQ is a measure of the ability of the child to learn and survive in his environment. He predicts the potential for success in school and in everyday life." Although a small number of children are diagnosed with FAS every year, many more children are at risk of pregnancy, which do not meet the criteria for FAS, yet experiencing a lack of growth and wisdom, "said Jennifer A. Willford, Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Paul D. Connor, Clinical Director of Alcohol and Drug Units and Assistant Department of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Washington, said this about the subject:
"There are many areas poor activity that can be impaired even despite reliable normal IQ, including academic performance (especially calculated), adaptability and implementation (ability to solve problems and learn from experience). Lack of intellectual, effective, adaptable and implementing measures could make it difficult to manage finances, work independently without assistance, and understand the consequences – or respond to appropriate – mistakes. "
This is a key point that addresses the (psychological) definition of information gathered later in this article.
Studies have shown that time ] exposure of human fetus to ultrasound waves is associated with reduced body weight, increased frequency of left handfuls and postponed speech.
Because ultrasound of energy sources is a high rate of mechanical vibration, investigators said that it could affect the flow of neurons in the embryo. Neurons in mammals Increase Early Maturation and Transfer to Final Destinations. All disturbances or disturbances in the process can lead to abnormal brain function
Advertising companies (which make ultrasound for "souvenir" purposes) are now creating powerful ultrasound machines which can provide the most popular 3D and 4D images. The method holds the other hand longer when they try to make 30 minute videos of the fetus in the uterus.
Journalist New Scientist announced the following: Ultrasound can prevent cells from sharing and killing them. Normal scans that have had a cure for fetal and internal organs over the last 40 years have an effect on normal cellular processes.
On the FDA website, this information is submitted for ultrasound:
Although ultrasound has taken place for many years, expecting women and their families need to know that long-term effects repeat ultrasound surveillance are not fully known. Given all that is still unknown, it is not a good idea to have an abortion for ultrasound due to medical reasons.
NATURE VERSUS NURTURE … THE DEBATE CONTINUES
Now that you are aware of some known issues that determine, improve and affect the intellectual development of the fetus, the time for conception. Once the child is born, which becomes more critical in the development of the intelligence: nature (genetics) or nutrition (the environment)?
Properly for centers, researchers and psychologists have gone back and forth about this. I read many comprehensive research and reports on this topic during the research phase of this article and I think it's time to put this discussion at rest. Both nature and nutrition are equally important and are fully reflected in the intellectual development of all children. This should not be either / or a proposal.
Recent research shows that early 1950s early childhood intervention in the classroom can make a significant difference for a child born in poverty according to Eric Turkheimer, a psychologist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The study finds that while genetic combination explains most about the difference between IQ for children in richer families, environment – and not genes – make a greater difference between minority groups in the minimum life.
Specifically, what scientists call "inheritance" – the extent to which the inheritance affects IQ – was significantly lower for poor families. "When you get into Adequate Environment your legacy begins to take over," said Mr. Turkheimer, "but in a poor environment, it has not been possible."
But there are reports that conflict with these results … like that.
Linda S. Gottfredson, professor of education at Delaware University, wrote in his article The General Intelligence Factor that the environment shared with siblings have little to do with IQ. Many still believe that the social, psychological and economic differences of families create lasting and appreciable differences in IQ.
She found that behavioral geneticists refer to such environmental effects as "things" because they are common siblings that grow together. Her reports say that the legacy of IQ expands with age. that is, the amount that a genetic account for the difference in IQ among individuals increases when people grow up.
In the article, she also explains to research that compares the same and fraternal twins published in the last decade by a group led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., from the University of Minnesota and other schools, showing that about 40 percent of IQ difference between preschools is due to genetic difference, but heredity increases to 60% after adolescents and 80% by late adulthood.
And this is perhaps an interesting part of information and matters in this part of the article:
With age, the difference between individuals is in their advanced intelligence to better reflect their genetic differences. It seems that the impact of the environment on intelligence fades rather than growing over time .
Bouchard concludes that young children have adapted to the standard of living of parents, schools and other agents in society, but when people grow older, they become more independent and tend to seek out the living quakes that are mostly homosexual to their genetic genetics.
BREAST-FEEDING INCREASES INTELLIGENCE
Researchers from the Christchurch School of Medicine in New Zealand wrote more than 1,000 children born between April and August 1977. In the period from birth to one year they collected information about how these children were fed.
The infant was then followed by the age of 18. Over the years, researchers gathered various intellectual and academic information about the children, including IQ, teachers' classroom teachers in reading and mathematics and the results of standard reading comprehension, math and academic skills. Researchers also looked at the number of graduation degrees obtained in national certificate exams at the end of the third-year compulsory school.
The results indicate that longer children have been breastfeeding, the higher they scored in such tests.
Talking to Your Children Does It Work
Thomas Sowell, Author Race, IQ, Black Crime and Facts Free Ignore Despicates Some Charming Information That Each Parent Should Take comment on. He writes:
It's a strong matter that black Americans suffer from unfavorable environments. Studies show again and again that before schooling, black children become less in vocabulary than white children, partly because of social factors.
Although children from professional homes usually receive 2,150 different words each day, children from working groups may become 1,250 and children from welfare only 620.
Yes, bands tend to come from educated, professional , two-parent environment where they record valuable language skills and vocabulary from their clinical bands.
Mr. Sowell continues: Black children are obviously not blamed for their poor social status, but something outside the economy is at work in black homes. Black people have not signed up for a "great project" of the White Middle East – a constant search for stimulating intellectual growth and getting their child in Harvard or Oxbridge.
Elsie Moore of Arizona State University, Phoenix, learned black children who were accepted by either black or white parents, all of whom were middle class teachers. After the age of 7.5, in black homes, 13 IQ levels were behind those in white homes.
At this point in my research, it should be quite obvious to you that many children are prone to being smart, educated and intelligent, simply by their exposure for influential factors that determine them long before starting school.
Enlightened mother, proper maternity training, educated, communicative parents, and a nutritious environment where they live, all add to the accumulated benefits that shape intellectual abilities. As you can see, some children have an unfair advantage from the beginning.
Malcolm Gladwell, author of the most popular book Outliers, wrote that "accumulated benefits" are made possible by random rules … and such unfair advantages are everywhere. "Those who are successful are most likely to have such social opportunities that lead to further success," he writes. "It's the richest people who get the biggest tax evasion. They are the best students who get the best instruction and attention."
With this in mind, our attention is drawn to education and intelligence.
What does it mean to be well educated?
Alfie Kohn, author of the book What does it mean to be well informed? puts the question: Is the sentence well-educated referring to the quality of the school you received or something about you? Does that mean what you were teaching? Or what do you remember?
I think it's all about being well educated. application and use of information. Information have used to become knowledge, and as we have all heard, knowledge is power.
Most people are aware of the flowing state of education in this country at some level. We tell our children that nothing is more important than getting a "good" education and every year because of the budget deficit, teachers are canceled, classes are tight, the school is closed and many education programs – especially those who help those who are not in despair – are cut.
The fact is that we are not really evaluating education. We value it as a business, industry, political ammunition and as a recognized form of discrimination, but not for what it was meant: a way to enrich the nature of one's life and life by learning.
What we consider to be a community, are athletes and entertainment they offer. The fact that a professional athlete puts more money in one season than most teachers in any area will do in his career is outrageous. There is always money to build a new playing field, but not enough to give the teachers a decent (and well deserved) increase.
Ironically, the best teachers do not go into the profession for money. They teach that it's a job. Most of them were influenced by a very good teacher as a student. With the mass production of teachers, many students can not grow the suggested relationships they can once because so many people leave the profession – voluntarily and unintentionally – within three years on average.
At the high school, where I started to start, the focus is not on educating students to prepare them for life, or even college (all colleges should be college kindergartens, right?), It was about prepare them to excel in their standard tests. Then there were controversial "departure tests" implemented and literally many colleges were transformed into test centers. Learning has almost become secondary.
This mindset moves to college, of course, which is a test that you must take to register (SAT or ACT). This explains why so many university students are more concerned about completing a course than learning from it. They are focused on getting "A" and degrees, instead of being divided thinkers. The latter are in higher demand among employers and consist of most self-employed. The "get-the-good" mentality is directly attributable to the unnecessary and often unnecessary testing that our students encounter in schools.
Alfie Kohn expresses the "exhibition" of learning, where students demonstrate their comprehension with detailed projects, assignments and other demonstrations.
He mentions a model entrepreneur of Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier has emphasized the importance of students having five "mindset", which are: the value of raising questions about evidence ("How Do We Know What We Know?"), Viewpoint ("What is the point of view This means? ") Connection (" How is this connected? ") The intention (" How has something been different? ") And Value why is this important? ").
Kohn writes: It's only the ability to raise and answer the questions that matter, but also the measure to do it. Assuming that some thoughts, what a description of what it means to think deeply and critically should be a reference to interest or interest in making such a thought … being well educated is having the desire and the way to walk make sure that learning never ends …
HISTORY AND OBJECT OF IQ
We have always wanted to measure intelligence. Ironically, when you look at some of the first methods used to evaluate it in the 1800s, they were not well, very intelligent. Methods such as imposing people on various kinds of torture to see what their goals for pain were (the longer you could tolerate wincing, the more intelligent you were believing) or test your ability to detect noise that others could not hear .
Item has changed … or have them?
No discussion of intelligence or IQ can be without satisfaction by Alfred Binet, a French psychologist responsible for laying the foundation for the IQ tests in 1904. His original intention was to form a test that would analyze students' learning ability in France. The test results were then used to prepare specific plans to assist students in their learning disabilities.
It was never meant to be used as a absolute measure of human intellectual ability.
According to Binet, intelligence could not be described as a single score. He said that the use of information teacher (IQ) as a statement about child courage would be a serious mistake. In addition, Binet feared that IQ measurement would be used to judge the child in a permanent "state" stupid, thus negatively affecting his education and livelihood.
The original interest was to evaluate spiritual age & # 39; – average value of information for an individual of a particular age His creation, the Binet-Simon Exam (originally called a "Scale"), formed an archetype for future testing of information gathering.
HH Goddard, director of research at Vineland Training School in New Jersey, translated Binet's work in English and tried a more general application of the Simon-Binet exam. Unlike Binet, Guddard considered intelligence alone, a permanent and elementary entity that could be measured. With the help of Lewis Terman at Stanford University, his final product, published in 1916, and Stanford's review of the Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence (also known as Stanford-Binet) became the standard of intelligence in the United States.
It's important to keep in mind that the threat of IQ is that it is stuck and can not be changed. The fact is that IQ levels are known to fluctuate – both up and down during their lifetime. It does not mean that you become more or less intelligent; it just means you tested better in one day than the other.
One more thing about IQ testing: They have been used for racial prejudice from import to the United States. Many of those involved in the import and cleaning of these tests believed that IQ was a legacy and responsible for misunderstanding that it is a "permanent" feature.
Many immigrants were tested in 1920 and failed these IQ tests poorly. As a result, many of them were denied entry into the United States, or forced to go to disinfection for fear of filling America with "stupid" and "inferior" children. If you remember, the tests were designed for the white middle class of the United States. Who do you think you're having trouble overtaking them?
Lewis Terman developed the original announcement of IQ and suggested this to classify IQ levels:
000-070: Final weak
070 – 079: Borderline deficiency
080 – 089: Dullness [19459007
115 – 124: Above average (for example, university students)
125 – 134: Gift products (eg graduates)
110 – 119:
135 – 144: Very talented (eg, intellectuals)
145 – 154 Genius (for example, professors)
155 – 164: Genius (for example, Nobel Prize winner)
165 – 179:
180 – 200: Highest Genius
200 – Higher ?: Unmistakable Genius
* Genius IQ is generally thought to start from 140 to 145, which is only 25% of the population (1 to 400).
* Einstein was considered "only" by IQ about 160.
Diane F. Halpern, psychologist and president of the American Psychological Association (APA) wrote in his essay Why clever men can be so stupid that we generally recognize people who are intelligent if they have any combination of these results (1) good grades at school; (2) high educational level; (3) responsible, complex job; (4) Any other recognition of being intelligent, such as winning a prize or winning a big salary; (5) ability to read complex text with good understanding; (6) solve difficulties and novel problems.
In my studies and in the early stages of this article, I came across many definitions of the word intelligence. Some were long, some were short. Some I could not even understand. The most common definition is the one created by APA: the ability to adapt to the human environment and learn from the mistakes of man.
What about it? There has become an environment again. We just can not escape it. This adds a deeper meaning to the saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." It means recognizing what's happening in your environment and intelligence adaptation – and the people who occupy it – to survive and succeed.
There are also many different types of intelligence. Most especially those created by dr. Howard Gardner, Professor of Education at Harvard University.
Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture emphasize their attention in language and logical intelligence. We appreciate highly artistic or logical people in our culture. Dr Gardner says, however, that we should also focus on individuals who show gifts in other ideas: artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, doctors, entrepreneurs and others who enrich the world we live in.
He found that the traditional IQ-based intelligence announcement was far too limited and created theory of diverse knowledge in 1983 to take into account the diverse potential of children and adults.
These thoughts are:
Poetic intelligence ("smart word")
Logical mathematical intelligence ("speech / reason smart")
Local intelligence ("smart image")
Not related to Dr. Gardner, but as follows:
FLUID & CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE
According to About.com, a psychologist said Raymond Cattell first discussed the concepts of fluid and crystallized information and further developed the theory with John Horn. The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystalline intelligence suggests that intelligence consists of many different skills that interact and work together to produce overall intelligence.
Cattell identified fluid knowledge as "… the ability to perceive relationships regardless of previous specific work or guidance on that communication." Hydraulic intelligence is the ability to think and reason abnormally and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience and education. Examples of hydraulic knowledge are to solve puzzles and come up with solutions.
Crystallized intelligence is learning from previous experience and education . Circumstances that require crystalline intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary tests. This type of intelligence is based on facts and directly to experience. This type of intelligence becomes stronger when we fire and gather new knowledge and understanding.
Both types of information gathering increase through youth and adolescents. The fluids peak in adolescence and begin to decline gradually and begin at the age of 30 or 40. Crystalline intelligence continues to grow in adulthood.
There is Successful Intelligence published by an analyst psychologist and Yale Professor, Robert J. Sternberg, who believes that the whole concept of linking IQ In life performance is distorted because he believes that IQ is a rather miserable prediction for success.
His successful analysts highlight three types of intelligence that are combined to contribute to the overall achievement of the human being: Analytical Intelligence ; spiritual steps or components used to solve problems; Creative Information : Using experience in a way that promotes insight (creativity / dissimilar thinking); and Practical Intelligence : the ability to read and adapt to the context of daily life.
With respect to the environment, Mr. Sternberg in his book Effective Intelligence : Successful people realize that the environment they feel may or may not be able to utilize their abilities. They seek an active environment because they can not only work well, but it matters. They create opportunities rather than limit the potential of the circumstances they find themselves.
As a teacher, I will subscribe to the Sternberg Welfare Training Approach. It has proved to be a very effective device and thought for my college students. Using effective intelligence as a backbone in the contextual curriculum really encourages students to see how education is making their goals more achievable and encourages them to further develop their expertise. Mr. Sternberg believes that the main factor in gaining knowledge is a significant participation.
In his most popular 1995 book, Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman reported that research shows that traditional information-gathering measures – IQ – account for only 20% of human beings & # 39; success in life. For example, studies on IQ and education show high IQ before 10 to 25% of college classes. The ratio varies according to how we define results. Nevertheless, the Goleman asserts the question: What is the 80% account?
You guess it … Emotional Intelligence. What exactly is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence (also called EQ or EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Many companies now have statutory EQ training for their managers in order to improve employees
communication and increase productivity.
Þekkingarkunnáttu aka "STREET SMARTS"
Þú hefur heyrt setninguna, "Reynsla er mesta kennari …"
Í sálfræðihringjum er kunnáttu sem aflað er af daglegu reynslu kallað þegjandi þekkingu . Hugtökin eru "götulíkur", sem þýðir að formleg kennsla í kennslustofunni (aka "bók smarts") hefur ekkert að gera með það. Einstaklingur er ekki beinlínis leiðbeinandi um hvað hann eða hún ætti að læra, heldur verður að draga mikilvægan lexíu af reynslunni, jafnvel þótt nám sé ekki aðalmarkmiðið.
Tacit þekkingu er nátengd skynsemi, sem er hljóð og skynsamleg dómur byggður á einföldum skynjun á ástandinu eða staðreyndum . Eins og þú veist, er skynsemi ekki allt svo algengt.
Tacit knowledge, or the lessons obtained from it, seems to "stick" both faster and better when the lessons have direct relevance to the individual's goals. Knowledge that is based on one's own practical experience will likely be more instrumental to achieving one's goals than will be knowledge that is based on someone else's experience, or that is overly generic and abstract.
BEING BOTH SMART AND STUPID
Yes, it's possible to be both smart and stupid. I'm sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule, but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent, or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way, and incredibly stupid in others.
The woman who is a respected, well paid, dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who do not appear to be worthy of her, or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community, with a loving wife and happy kids, ends up being arrested on rape charges.
It happens, but why? I found the answer in Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid . Essentially, intellect is domain specific. In other words, being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of your life, and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. Turning off one's brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. A shared character among those who are smart and stupid, is the difficulty in delaying gratification.
Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations, erroneous beliefs, or purely a lack of motivation to enforce control strategies even when one has them. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one's affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior.
The central character in this book who many of these lessons regarding being smart and stupid revolve around is Bill Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinksky.
WISDOM & CONCLUSION
My great grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th grade education at the most. By no stretch of the imagination she was highly educated, but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She was very observant and could "read" people with starting accuracy. Till the very end of her life she shared her "crystallized intelligence" with whomever was receptive to it.
She died at the age of 94. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker, but most importantly, I use her philosophies to make sure that I'm being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. They seem to have life figured out, and a knack for helping those of us who are smart, educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking.
What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.
Wisdom is the ability to look through a person, when others can only look at them. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions, and makes you less judgmental. Wisdom is understanding without knowing, and accepting without understanding. Wisdom is recognizing what's important to other people, and knowing that other people are of the utmost importance to you. Wisdom is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.